[36] Herodotus gives a detailed breakdown of the Persian triremes: Herodotus also records that this was the number at the Battle of Salamis, despite the losses earlier in storms off Sepia and Euboea, and at the battle of Artemisium. There were two mainland invasions of Greece, in 490 (under King Darius) and 480–479 BCE (under King Xerxes). In 481 BC Xerxes sent ambassadors around Greece asking for earth and water, but making the very deliberate omission of Athens and Sparta. [149] The Allied army however, under the command of the Spartan regent Pausanias, stayed on high ground above Plataea to protect themselves against such tactics. [213], Spring 480 BC: Thrace, Macedonia and Thessaly, August 480 BC: Thermopylae and Artemisium, The 30 marines are in addition to the figure of 200 given for the ships' crews, There is some contradiction in Herodotus's accounts. Mardonius sought to exploit dissensions between the Allies in order to fracture the alliance. [182] At Thermopylae, until the path outflanking the Allied position was revealed, the Persians signally failed to adjust their tactics to the situation, although the position was well chosen to limit the Persian options. After Darius’s death, his son Xerxes spent several years planning for … Moreover, the threat of future invasion was abated; although the Greeks remained worried that Xerxes would try again, over time it became apparent that the Persian desire to conquer Greece was much diminished. The Persian advance was blocked at the pass of Thermopylae by a small Allied force under King Leonidas I of Sparta; simultaneously, the Persian fleet was blocked by an Allied fleet at the straits of Artemisium. When he was made aware of this manoeuver (whilst the Immortals were still en route), Leonidas dismissed the bulk of the Allied army, remaining to guard the rear with 300 Spartans, 700 Thespians, 400 Thebans and perhaps a few hundred others. [179] It is therefore slightly surprising that the Persians did not bring any hoplites from the Greek regions, especially Ionia, under their control in Asia. In a day of savage fighting, the Allies held on to their position, but suffered severe losses[123] (half the Athenian fleet was damaged[124]); nevertheless, the Allies inflicted equal losses on the Persian fleet. [6] However, since the 19th century his reputation has been dramatically rehabilitated by archaeological finds which have repeatedly confirmed his version of events. [123] That evening, the Allies received news of the fate of Leonidas and the Allies at Thermopylae. The second Persian invasion of Greece (480–479 BC) occurred during the Greco-Persian Wars, as King Xerxes I of Persia sought to conquer all of Greece.The invasion was a direct, if delayed, response to the defeat of the first Persian invasion of Greece (492–490 BC) at the Battle of Marathon which ended Darius I's attempts to subjugate Greece. Xerxes watched this destruction from the shore, and returned back to Persia in disgust at what he had witnessed. [184], Thus, the Persian failure may be seen partly as a result of two strategic mistakes which handed the Allies tactical advantages, and resulted in decisive defeats for the Persians. before he could lauch another assault on Greece , so it was his son Xerxes that set out to complete his fathers ambition of conquering Greece. With the Persian Empire defeated, mainly due to the Spartan army, many believed that Sparta would continue to act as leader for Greece . Second Persian invasion of Greece is similar to these military conflicts: Greco-Persian Wars, Battle of Artemisium, Battle of Plataea and more. [7] The prevailing modern view is that Herodotus generally did a remarkable job in his Historia, but that some of his specific details (particularly troop numbers and dates) should be viewed with skepticism. The Persians ten years later would launch the second invasion under the new king Xerxes. As well as the alliance consisting of the main city-states in Greece , many islands in the Aegean and the Ionic and Aeolian colonies in Asia Minor were involved. [126] The Peloponnesian Allies began to prepare a defensive line across the Isthmus of Corinth, building a wall, and demolishing the road from Megara, thereby abandoning Athens to the Persians. [206][208][209] Whilst this may be an exaggeration (it is obviously impossible to know), it is clear that even at the time the Greeks understood that something very significant had happened. Most of the Greek city states met in Corinth to work out a common defence. [184] The cities in any territory that the army passed through would be forced to submit or risk destruction; and indeed this happened with the Thessalian, Locrian and Phocian cities who initially resisted the Persians but then were forced to submit as the Persians advanced. Archaeological evidence, such as the Serpent Column, also supports some of Herodotus's specific claims. February 23, 2020. [162] The Persians, whose ships were in a poor state of repair, had decided not to risk fighting, and instead drew their ships up on the beach under Mycale. The Second Persian War During the ten years following the First Iranian Invasion of Greece, Darius the Great' son Xerxes became the new Persian King of Kings and began preparations for another invasion of Greece. The Persians first attempt at invading Greece had been defeated at the Bay of Marathon. [78][79] Other proponents of larger numbers suggest figures from 250,000 to 700,000[80][81] One historian, Kampouris, even accepts as realistic Herodotus' 1,700,000 for the infantry plus 80,000 cavalry (including support) for various reasons including the size of the area from which the army was drafted (from modern-day Libya to Pakistan), the ratios of land troops to fleet troops, of infantry to cavalry and Persian troops to Greek troops.[82]. Articles with dead external links from November 2014, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, "Herodotus: Father of History, Father of Lies", http://web.archive.org/web/20071227170138/http://www.loyno.edu/history/journal/1998-9/Pipes.htm, http://www.metrum.org/perwars/persize.htm, http://www.victorhanson.com/articles/hanson101106.html, http://www.carlisle.army.mil/usawc/Parameters/96summer/eiken.htm, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Second_Persian_invasion_of_Greece?oldid=4375947, Greek city states led by Athens and Sparta. You have just received word that King Xerxes I of Persia is following in his father’s footsteps and has decided to launch a second invasion of Greece. [163][168] Taking on this lesson the Persian empire would later, after the Peloponnesian War, start recruiting and relying on Greek mercenaries. [186] After Salamis, the Persian strategy changed. [205] This may have played a part, and certainly the Greeks seem to have interpreted their victory in those terms. He wrote his 'Enquiries' (Greek—Historia; English—(The) Histories) around 440–430 BC, trying to trace the origins of the Greco-Persian Wars, which would still have been relatively recent history (the wars finally ending in 450 BC). [107], The Allied 'congress' met again in the spring of 480 BC. [14] A preliminary expedition under Mardonius, in 492 BC, to secure the land approaches to Greece ended with the re-conquest of Thrace and forced Macedon to become a client kingdom of Persia. Perisia now controlled northern Greece, and were able to march down into Athens and take control over the whole of Greece . Vol 3 Ep 11 - Second Persian Invasion of Greece, Part One. Themistocles however decided against a battle in the open sea. [96] The Athenians did not have the man-power to fight on land and sea; therefore combatting the Persians would require an alliance of several Greek city states. [192][193][194] The Greeks, by comparison, were fragmented, with only 30 or so city-states actively opposing the Persian invasion; even those were prone to quarrel with each other. [161] Seeing the small size of the Allied force, the Persians emerged from the camp, but the hoplites again proved superior, and destroyed much of the Persian force. [172] The hoplite's heavy armour and long spears made them excellent troops in hand-to-hand combat[168] and gave them significant protection against ranged attacks by light troops and skirmishers. He further suggested that Herodotus may have confused the Persian terms for chiliarchy (1,000) and myriarchy (10,000), leading to an exaggeration by a factor of ten. The term "Asian" is Herodotus' but under that term he also includes Arabians and north Africans. The route to southern Greece (Boeotia, Attica and the Peloponnesus) would require the army of Xerxes to travel through the very narrow pass of Thermopylae. [21] These were both feats of exceptional ambition, which would have been beyond any contemporary state. 480 BCE - Following defeat at Marathon, the Persians were back. [134][135] Partly as a result of subterfuge on the part of Themistocles, the navies finally engaged in the cramped Straits of Salamis. Events by cover. Furthermore, to prevent the Persians bypassing Thermopylae by sea, the allied navy could block the straits of Artemisium. This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "Second_Persian_invasion_of_Greece" ; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. [104][105] However, the Argives had been severely weakened in 494 BC, when a Spartan-force led by Cleomenes I had annihilated the Argive army in Battle of Sepeia and then massacred the fugitives.[105]. [175] The 'elite' contingents of the Persian infantry seem to have been the ethnic Persians, Medians, Cissians and the Saka. [166] Herodotus ended his Historia after the Siege of Sestos. [144] When the other Allies failed to commit to this, the Athenian fleet probably refused to join the Allied navy in Spring. The second Persian invasion of Greece (480–479 BC) occurred during the Greco-Persian Wars, as King Xerxes I of Persia sought to conquer all of Greece. Xerxes plan was to go through Thracy to get to Northern Greece, with his fleet providing protection. [173] It may therefore simply be that neither the Ionians nor Egyptians were included in the army because they were serving in the fleet — none of the coastal regions of the Persian empire appear to have sent contingents with the army. [211] Thermopylae is often used as a good example of the use of terrain as a force multiplier;[212] whilst Themistocles's ruse before Salamis is a good example of the use of deception in warfare. Following the death of Darius, Xerxes became the new Persian king and made plans for a second invasion of mainland Greece during which panhellenic sentiment united numerous poleis in … The second Persian war was a war of much significance to European history. The second Persian invasion of Greece (480–479 BC) occurred during the Greco-Persian Wars, as King Xerxes I of Persia sought to conquer all of Greece. [198][199] Conversely, the Allied strategy was probably to try and stop the Persian advance as far north as possible, and thus prevent the submission of as many potential Allies as possible. [121], On the second day of the battle, news reached the Allies that their lines of retreat were no longer threatened; they therefore resolved to maintain their position. [67] Other early modern scholars estimated that the land forces participating in the invasion at 100,000 soldiers or less, based on the logistical systems available to the Ancients. The figure of 240,000 is derived from 3,000. [186] The Allied performance at Thermopylae was initially effective; however, the failure to properly guard the path that outflanked Thermopylae undermined their strategy, and led to defeat. This invasion in particular, however, probably In order for Athens to start rebuilding Greece and also to protect it from future invasion, an alliance was formed. Only 70 of the approximately 700 Greek cities sent representatives. Over the next 30 years, the Greeks, primarily the Athenian-dominated Delian League, would expel the Persians from Macedon, Thrace, the Aegean islands and Ionia. [19] Xerxes crushed the Egyptian revolt, and very quickly restarted the preparations for the invasion of Greece. Herodotus gives the names of 46 nations from which troops were drafted. When the Persians did reach Athens, they destroyed it and burnt it down to the ground. [118], Simultaneous with the battle at Thermopylae, an Allied naval force of 271 triremes defended the Straits of Artemisium against the Persians. [206] One crucial factor in the Allied success was that, having formed an alliance, however fractious, they remained true to it, despite the odds. [168], Greek hoplite and Persian warrior depicted fighting. [26], The numbers of troops which Xerxes mustered for the second invasion of Greece have been the subject of endless dispute, because the numbers given in ancient sources are very large indeed. [186] Regardless of its actual size, it is clear that the Persians had brought an overwhelming number of troops and ships to Greece. He is also notable in Western history for his failed invasion of Greece in 480 BC. [186] It was the botched attempt to retreat from Plataea that finally delivered the Allies battle on their terms. [98] This confederation had the power to send envoys asking for assistance and to dispatch troops from the member states to defensive points after joint consultation. A congress of states met at Corinth in late autumn of 481 BC, and a confederate alliance of Greek city-states was formed. The annual contribution of ships, and then later money, allowed Athens to enter into a new age. [150] Mardonius ordered a hit-and-run cavalry attack on the Greek lines,[151] but the attack was unsuccessful and the cavalry commander killed. At the famous Battle of Thermopylae, the Allied army held back the Persian army for seven days, before they were outflanked by a mountain path and the Allied rearguard was trapped in the pass and annihilated. Second Persian Invasion of Greece Background King Xerxes had brought his huge army and navy… [186] The Allied strategy for 479 BC was something of a mess; the Peloponnesians only agreed to march north in order to save the alliance, and it appears that the Allied leadership had little idea how to force a battle that they could win. [2] Herodotus's approach was entirely novel, and at least in Western society, he does seem to have invented 'history' as we know it. it was the soldiers rather than generals that won the war). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA. Second Persian invasion of Greece: | | | Second Persian invasion of Greece | | | ... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled. The invasion was a direct, if delayed, response to the defeat of the first Persian invasion of Greece (492–490 BC) at the Battle of Marathon, which ended Darius I's attempts to subjugate Greece. The Persian Wars ended with the Peace of Callias of 449, but by this time, and as a result of actions taken in Persian War battles, Athens had developed her own empire. He did not reject Herodotus's account altogether, citing the latter's reporting of the Persians' careful methods of accounting and their stockpiling of supply caches for three years, but drew attention to the contradictions in the ancient sources. Had Themistocles not evacuated the city, it would have been disastrous. [150] The Allied position now undermined, Pausanias ordered a night-time retreat towards their original positions. Themistocles had predicted that Athens would soon be taken over by the Persians so he ordered the women and children of Athens to evacuate to the island of Salamis, whilst the men were sent to sea to join with the Athenian fleet. However, most of the Greek cities remained neutral or submitted to Xerxes. The Persian Empire was still relatively young, and prone to revolts amongst its subject peoples. We are now at 480 BCE, where Xerxes is going to try to invade Greece by land and by sea, but as we will see, he is also not going to be successful. [161] The ships were abandoned to the Allies, who burnt them, crippling Xerxes' sea power, and marking the ascendancy of the Allied fleet. After three days resisting the much larger Persian army of Xerxes I, Greek forces were betrayed by Ephialtes and sent into retreat by their leader, Leonidas, who died during a final stand. [110], A second strategy was therefore suggested to the Allies by Themistocles. [147] However, when the Athenian emissaries then delivered an ultimatum to the Spartans, they were amazed to hear that a task force was in fact already marching to meet the Persians. It was the invasion of Greece from 480 BC to 479 BC; King Xerxes I, of Persia, was determined to conquer Greece during the Greco-Persian Wars; he had an army of over 100,000 men. But this second invasion is the stuff of legend, and once again, the historical accounts come to us primarily from Herodotus, … [28] Whilst it has been suggested that Herodotus or his sources had access to official Persian Empire records of the forces involved in the expedition, modern scholars tend to reject these figures based on knowledge of the Persian military systems, their logistical capabilities, the Greek countryside, and supplies available along the army's route. [186] He seems to have been willing to accept battle on his terms, but he waited either for the Allies to attack, or for the alliance to collapse ignominiously. [111] However, the Peloponnesian cities made fall-back plans to defend the Isthmus of Corinth should it come to it, whilst the women and children of Athens were evacuated en masse to the Peloponnesian city of Troezen. [167] Properly assembled, the phalanx was a formidable offensive and defensive weapon;[170][171] on occasions when it is recorded to have happened, it took a huge number of light infantry to defeat a relatively small phalanx. [184] In particular, he sought to win over the Athenians, which would leave the Allied fleet unable to oppose Persian landings on the Peloponnesus. [166] Peace with Persia came in 449 BC with the Peace of Callias, finally ending the half-century of warfare. [139] All of the Persian forces abandoned Attica, with Mardonius over-wintering in Boeotia and Thessaly. [67] Maurice suggested in the region of 200,000 men and 70,000 animals could have been supported by the rivers in that region of Greece. The Greeks would now move over to the offensive, eventually expelling the Persians from Europe, the Aegean islands and Ionia before the war finally came to an end in 479 BC. Different-sized allied forces thus appeared throughout the campaign. [173] Some of contingents may have been armed somewhat differently;[173] for instance, the Saka were renowned axemen. [91][92][93] Other recent works on the Persian Wars reject this number, 1,207 being seen as more of a reference to the combined Greek fleet in the Iliad generally claim that the Persians could have launched no more than around 600 warships into the Aegean.[93][94][95]. [161] It has been suggested that there is little evidence of complex tactics in the Greco-Persian wars. Herodotus, who has been called the 'Father of History',[1] was born in 484 BC in Halicarnassus, Asia Minor (then under Persian overlordship). However, when they failed on both of these objectives, it was accepted by all that Athens should become the main city of Greece. Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War, e.g. [170] The phalanx was vulnerable to being outflanked by cavalry, if caught on the wrong terrain, however. The battle took place at the pass of Thermopylae. [8], The Sicilian historian Diodorus Siculus, writing in the 1st century BC in his Bibliotheca Historica, also provides an account of the Greco-Persian wars, partially derived from the earlier Greek historian Ephorus. However, at the end of the second day, they were betrayed by a local resident named Ephialtes who revealed a mountain path that led behind the Allied lines to Xerxes. [154][155] However as at Thermopylae, the Persian infantry proved no match for the heavily armoured Greek hoplites,[156] and the Spartans broke through to Mardonius's bodyguard and killed him. (Redirected from Book:Second Persian invasion of Greece) This page is currently inactive and is retained for historical reference. [144] Although Herodotus tells us that Mardonius was keen to fight a decisive battle, his actions in the run-up to Plataea are not particularly consistent with this. The invasion was a direct, if delayed, response to the defeat of the first Persian invasion of Greece (492–490 BC) at the Battle of Marathon which ended Darius I's attempts to subjugate Greece. Political developments in Athens would continue to evolve with one hero of the hour replace by another. [29][30] Nevertheless, whatever the real numbers were, it is clear that Xerxes was anxious to ensure a successful expedition by mustering overwhelming numerical superiority by land and by sea,[29] and also that much of the army died of starvation and disease, never returning to Asia. Darius had died in 485 B.C. After another battle between the Greeks and Persians in Cyprus, in which the Greeks were victorious, a formal agreement between the two took place in which the Persians would not attack Greece or its colonies in Asia Minor, and that Greece would never again attack Persia. The Battle of Thermopylae was fought in central Greece at the mountain pass of Thermopylae in 480 BCE during the Persian Wars. There, food had been sent from Asia for several years in preparation for the campaign. Second Persian invasion of Greece. [132][133] Such an outflanking of the isthmus required the use of the Persian navy, and thus the neutralisation of the Allied navy. 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